Friday, May 02, 2008

Oven To Crockpot Conversions

For most crockpots, the low setting is about 200º and the high setting is about 300º

One hour on high is equal to 2 to 2 1/2 hours on low.

Here is the conversion for regular ovens to crockpots
15 to 30 minutes oven = 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hours on high in crockpot or 4-6 hours on low.
35 to 45 minutes oven = 3 hours on high or 6-8 hours on low.
60 minutes to 3 hours oven = 4-5 hours on high or 8-18 hours on low.

Most uncooked meat and vegetable combinations require at least 8 hours on low.

Here are some more tips:

Beef cuts will be better cooked on low for 8-10 hours, while chicken can be cooked on high for 2 1/2 to 3 hours.

Reduce the amount of liquid used in oven recipes (unless rice or pasta is used) when using the low setting-the crockpot retains moisture while it would evaporate in a regular oven.

Spices may need to be reduced or increased. Whole herbs and spices increase their flavoring in a crockpot, while ground spices and herbs may lose some flavor. Add ground spices during the last hour of cooking. Whole herbs and spices will probably need to be reduced by half.

Rice, noodles, macaroni, seafood, Chinese vegetables and milk do not hold up well when cooked 8-10 hours. Add these to sauce of liquid about 2 hours before serving when using low, or 1 hour on high.

If you want to use milk in an 8-10 hour recipe, use evaporated milk

Browning meats is a personal choice. It's not necessary, but may reduce the fat content if browned.

Sautéing vegetables isn't necessary except for eggplant which should be parboiled or sautéed due to it's strong flavor. You may want to decrease the amount of strong tasting vegetables since they will permeate the other foods in the crock pot with their full flavor.

Dry beans can be cooked overnight on low as an alternative to soaking. Cover with water and add 1 tsp of baking soda. Drain and combine with other ingredients. Be sure beans are softened before adding to any sugar or tomato mixture.

Use long grain parboiled/converted raw rice in recipes and use standard liquid amounts instead of reducing the liquid. For mixed recipes requiring pasta, it's best to cook the pasta separately to al dente and add just before serving.

For soups, add water only to cover ingredients. If thinner soup is wanted, add more liquid at the end of the cooking time.

Alcohol Substitutes for Recipes

Amaretto: non-alcoholic almond extract; orgeat Italian soda syrup; or marzipan.

Applejack or apple brandy: Unsweetened apple juice concentrate; apple juice; apple cider; or apple butter.

Apricot brandy: Syrup from canned apricots in heavy syrup; or apricot preserves.

Bourbon: Non-alcoholic vanilla extract.

Champagne and other sparkling wines: Sparkling apple cider; sparkling cranberry juice; or sparkling grape juice.

Cherry liqueur or brandy: Syrup from canned cherries in heavy syrup; Italian soda cherry syrup; or cherry preserves.

Coffee liqueur or brandy: Espresso; non-alcoholic coffee extract; or coffee syrup.

Creme de cacao: Powdered white chocolate mixed with water; non-alcoholic vanilla extract and powdered sugar.

Creme de cassis: Black currant Italian soda syrup; or black currant jam.

Creme de menthe: Mint Italian soda syrup; or non-alcoholic mint extract.

Gewurztraminer: White grape juice mixed with lemon juice, water, and a pinch of powdered sugar.

Licorice or anise flavored liqueur: Anise Italian soda syrup; or fennel.

Mirin: White grape juice mixed with lemon juice or zest.

Muscat: White grape juice mixed with water and powdered sugar

Orange liqueur or brandy: Unsweetened orange juice concentrate; orange zest; orange juice; or marmalade.

Peach brandy: Syrup from canned peaches in heavy syrup; or use peach preserves.

Peppermint schnapps: Mint Italian soda syrup; non-alcoholic mint extract; or mint leaves

Port: Concord grape juice mixed with lime zest; or cranberry juice mixed with lemon juice

Red wine: Grape juice; vegetable stock; cranberry juice; tomato juice; or concord grape jelly.

Riesling: White grape juice mixed with water and a pinch of powdered sugar.

Rum: Non-alcoholic vanilla or rum extract.

Sherry: Apple cider; non-alcoholic vanilla extract; coffee; or coffee syrup.

Vermouth: Apple cider; or apple juice mixed with lemon juice and water.

Vodka: Water; apple cider or white grape juice mixed with lime juice.

White wine: White grape juice; apple cider; apple juice; vegetable stock; or water.

Regular Substitutions


When making substitutions for alcohols, it is important to keep the volume of liquid in the recipe the same as originally called for.

Depending on the recipe, apple juice or chicken broth often makes a good ubstitution for wine. When using flavored liqueurs, extracts can be substituted if you make up the balance of the liquid with water.

For example, if a recipe calls for 2 tablespoons Grand Marnier you could use 1/2 teaspoon orange extract. Just be sure to get the same level of orange flavor. This may take some experimentation.

Baking Powder:

1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar can be substituted for 1 teaspoon baking powder.

Baking Soda:

There is no recommended substitute for baking soda.

Bouquet Garni:

1/2 teaspoon each dried parsley flakes, dried thyme leaves and 1 bay leaf (crushed), can be substituted for 1 teaspoon bouquet garni.


Unsalted butter can be substituted for regular butter in any recipe. It is NOT necessary to add salt. Margarine can also be substituted for butter. Do NOT use lowfat spreads or light butter for baking.


1 tablespoon vinegar plus enough milk to equal 1 cup OR 2/3 cup plain yogurt plus 1/3 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup buttermilk.


1 teaspoon dried parsley flakes plus 1/8 teaspoon rubbed, dried sage can be substituted for 1 teaspoon chervil.

Chicken or Beef Broth:

1 cup hot water and 1 teaspoon instant bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) can be substituted for 1 cup broth.

Chocolate Chips, Semi-Sweet:

6 ounces semi-sweet chocolate, chopped, can be substituted for 1 cup (6 ounces) semi-sweet chocolate chips. When substituting for chocolate chips, make sure to use the same type of chocolate (i.e. semi-sweet, milk).

Chocolate, Semi-Sweet:

3 tablespoons chocolate chips OR 1 square (1-ounce) unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon sugar can be substituted for 1 square (1-ounce) semi-sweet chocolate. 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 7 tablespoons sugar plus 1/4 cup fat can be substituted for 6 ounces semi-sweet chocolate.

Chocolate, Sweet Baking (German):

1/4 cup unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/3 cup sugar and 3 tablespoons fat can be substituted for 4 ounces German sweet baking chocolate.

Chocolate, Unsweetened:

1 2/3 ounce semisweet chocolate (reduce sugar in recipe by 2 teaspoons) OR 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or shortening can be used instead of 1 ounce unsweetened baking chocolate or 1 ounce premelted unsweetened chocolate.


1/2 cup hot water and 1 teaspoon instant coffee granules can be substituted for 1/2 cup strong brewed coffee.

Cooking Sprays:

Can usually be successfully substituted for shortening to prepare baking sheets and baking pans.


2 tablespoons all-purpose flour or 2 teaspoons arrowroot starch can be substituted for 1 tablespoon cornstarch.

Corn Syrup, Light:
1 cup dark corn syrup can be substituted for 1 cup light corn syrup, and vice versa. (Note: Flavor will be affected somewhat.) OR substitute 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cups liquid.

Cream (20% fat) (Coffee Cream):

3 tablespoon butter plus 7/8 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup cream (in baking and cooking).

Cream (40% fat) (Whipping Cream):

1/3 cup butter plus 3/4 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup cream (in baking and cooking).

Cream of Tartar:

There is no recommended substitution for cream of tartar.

Egg Whites:

Meringue powder can be substituted for egg whites in a meringue application. Three egg whites equal approximately 3 tablespoons meringue powder plus 6 tablespoons water.

Flavor Oils:

It is not recommended that you substitute flavor extracts for flavor oils. Oil based flavorings are necessary for hard candies because the liquid portion of the extracts add too much liquid, causing steam, to the hard candy syrup.

Flour (as thickener):

1/2 tablespoon cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch, arrowroot starch, or 1 tablespoon quick-cooking tapioca can be substituted for 1 tablespoon all-purpose flour.

Flour, Cake:

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour can be substituted for 1 cup cake flour.

Flour, Self-Rising:

1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt can be substituted for 1 cup self-rising flour.


1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon instant minced garlic or 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder can be substituted for 1 clove minced garlic.


1 tablespoon fresh herbs equals 1 teaspoon dried herbs.


1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cup liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe) can be substituted for 1 cup honey.

Italian Seasoning:

1/4 teaspoon EACH dried oregano leaves, dried marjoram leaves and dried basil leaves plus 1/8 teaspoon rubbed dried sage can be substituted for 1 1/2 teaspoons Italian seasoning.

Meringue Powder:

You can't substitute meringue powder for egg whites in most recipes because it contains other ingredients such as sugar.

Milk, Whole:

1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water OR 1 cup water plus 1/3 cup nonfat evaporated dry milk powder OR 1 cup skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter can be substituted for 1 cup whole milk. NOTE: Whole milk is higher in total fat than low-fat milk. If a baking recipe calls for whole milk, you may be able to substitute a low-fat milk variety like skim, 1% or 2% fat. Be cautious about substituting skim milk in pudding, custard and sauce recipes. These recipes rely on the dairy fat for
added texture and flavor. Baked items such as cakes and cookies can usually
tolerate the use of low-fat milk.


1 cup honey can be substituted for 1 cup molasses. (and vice versa)

Note: flavor will be affected.

Mustard, Dry:

1 tablespoon prepared mustard can be substituted for 1 teaspoon dry mustard.

Mustard, Prepared:

1/2 teaspoon dry mustard plus 2 teaspoons vinegar can be substituted for 1 tablespoon prepared mustard.


1 cup melted butter, margarine or shortening can be substituted for 1 cup oil. Note: Recipe results may vary. Texture and appearance may be affected.


1/4 cup instant minced onion, flaked onion OR 1 teaspoon onion powder can be substituted for 1 cup (1 medium) chopped onion.

Poultry Seasoning:

1/4 teaspoon ground thyme plus 3/4 teaspoon ground sage can be substituted for 1 teaspoon poultry seasoning.

Pumpkin Pie Spice:

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon ginger and 1/8 teaspoon EACH nutmeg and cloves can be substituted for 1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice.


1 cup butter or margarine can be substituted for 1 cup shortening. When using shortening in place of butter or margarine, 1 tablespoon milk or water for each 1/2 cup shortening used may need to be added. DO NOT substitute vegetable oil for shortening when recipe calls for melting the shortening.

Sour Cream:

1 cup plain yogurt can be substituted for 1 cup sour cream.


1 cup firmly packed brown sugar can be substituted for 1 cup sugar.

Note: Flavor will be affected somewhat.

Sugar, Light Brown:

1/2 cup firmly packed dark brown sugar and 1/2 cup sugar can be substituted for 1 cup firmly packed light brown sugar. (Slight flavor differences will occur.)

Sweet Potatoes:

1 (18-ounce) can vacuum-packed sweet potatoes can be substituted for 1 (23-ounce) can sweet potatoes, drained.

Tomato Sauce:

3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water can be substituted for 1 cup tomato sauce.


1/2 cup fruit juice can be substituted for 1/2 cup wine in desserts.
1/2 cup chicken broth can be substituted for 1/2 cup wine in savory recipes.

A To Z Of Spices

ALLSPICE: These small dark, reddish-brown berries are so called becausetheir aroma and flavor resemble a combination of cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. Use berries whole in marinades; for boiling and pot roasting meatsand poultry; in fish dishes, pickles and chutneys. Also available ground and excellent for flavoring soups, sauces and desserts. ANISE: Commonly called asniseed, these small, brown oval seeds have the sweet, pungent flavor of licorice. Also available ground. Use seeds in stews and vegetable dishes, or sprinkle over loaves and rolls before baking. Try ground anise for flavoring fish dishes and pastries for fruit pies. BASIL: Basil is an herb which belongs to the mint family. The leaves are used either fresh or dried. Uses: Meats, fish and seafood, eggs, spaghetti sauces, and salads BAY LEAVES: Bay leaves, also known as sweet laurel, come from an evergreen tree which is native to the Mediterranean. The leaves are usually dried and are used whole, crumbled, or ground. Uses: Seasoning for meats, fish, potatoes, sauces, stews, and pickles. CARAWAY: Small brown, crescent-shaped seeds with a strong liquorice flavor and especially delicious as a flavoring in braised cabbage and sauerkraut recipes, breads (particularly rye), cakes and cheeses. CARDAMOM: Small, triangular-shaped pods containing numerous small black seeds which have a warm, highly aeromatic flavor. You can buy green or black cardamoms although the smaller green type is more widely available. CAYENNE: Orangey-red in color, this ground pepper is extremely hot and pungent. Not to be confused with paprika which, although related, is mild flavored. CELERY SEED: Celery seed is often combined with salt to make celery salt, but it can also be purchased as whole or ground seeds. The seeds have a slightly bitter, celery flavor. Uses: Bean salad, beef, pickles and relishes, barbecue sauces, soups, and salads. CHERVIL: Chervil, a member of the carrot family, is a mild herb native to southeastern Europe. Similar to parsley in appearance, it has a flavor resembling anise or tarragon. Uses: Fish, eggs, vegetables, soups and stews, salads, and meat sauces. Widely used in French cuisine. CHILI POWDER: Made from dried red chilies. This red powder varies in flavor and hotness, from mild to hot. A less fiery type is found in chili seasoning. CINNAMON & CASSIA: Shavings of bark from the cinnamon tree are processed and curled to form cinnamon sticks. Also available in ground form. Spicy, fragrant and sweet, it is used widely in savory and sweet dishes. Cassia(from the dried bark of the cassia tree) is similar to cinnamon, but less delicate in flavor with a slight pungent 'bite'. CHIVES: Chive, a small but popular herb, is the smallest member of the onion family. It has long hollow green leaves, which grow in clumps. This plant has a very mild onion flavor. They are best used fresh, but can also be freeze dried. Do not put chives in a uncooked dish that you plan on keeping for several hours or longer, because they develop an unpleasantly strong taste. Uses: In dishes where a mild onion flavor is desired; eggs, white cheeses, fish, green sauces, and for garnishes in soups, salads, and cooked vegetables. CLOVES: Cloves are the dried, unopened buds of a tropical evergreen tree. They have a strong, warm, sweet flavor. Cloves can be used either whole or ground; when used whole, the cloves are usually removed before serving. These dried, unopened flower buds give a warm aroma and pungency to foods, but should be used with care as the flavor can become overpowering. Available in ground form. Cloves are added to soups, sauces, mulled drinks, stewed fruits and apple pies Uses: Ham, barbecue sauces, pickles, relishes, breads, cakes, cookies, and candies. CORIANDER: Available in seed and ground form. These tiny, pale brown seeds have a mild, spicy flavor with a slight orange peel fragrance. An essential spice in curry dishes, but also extremely good in many cake and cookie recipes. CUMIN: Sold in seed or ground. Cumin has a warm, pungent aromatic flavor and is used extensively in flavor curries and many Middle Eastern and Mexican dishes. Popular in Germany for flavoring sauerkraut and pork dishes. Use ground or whole in meat dishes and stuffed vegetables. CURRY POWDER: Curry powder is not a single spice, but rather a combination of several spices. Most curries use coriander as the base and then blend other spices such as ginger, turmeric, fenugreek seed, cumin, red and black pepper, cloves, and many other spices. Uses: Indian (Asian) recipes, rice, lamb, poultry, eggs, and vegetables. DILL: Dill, also known as dillweed, is a small flavorful herb best known for flavoring pickles. It is native to Asia, but is now used worldwide. Both the leaves and seeds are used to flavor foods. Uses: Used mainly in pickle recipes, but can also be used in breads, soups, meats, and salads. FENNEL SEED: Fennel is a member of the parsley family and is grown for its sweet seeds which have a flavor similar to licorice or anise. Uses: Breads, cakes, cookies, pizza and spaghetti sauces, and pickles. FENUGREEK: These small, yellow-brown seeds have a slight bitter flavor which, when added in small quantities, is very good in curries, chutneys and pickles, soups, fish and shellfish dishes. GARLIC: Garlic is an herb related to the onion and is cultivated for its bulb, which is composed of several small cloves. Garlic can be used fresh or dried. It is a key ingredient to many cuisines including Italian, Chinese, and Middle Eastern. Garlic is not only used in cooking, but it also has many medicinal uses. Uses: Meats, chicken, seafood, stews, sauces, marinade, salad dressings, Italian and Chinese dishes. GINGER: Available in many forms. Invaluable for adding to many savory and sweet dishes and for baking gingerbread and brandy snaps. Fresh ginger root looks like a knobby stem. It should be peeled and finely chopped or sliced before use. Dreid ginger root is very hard and light beige in color. To release flavor, 'bruise' with a spoon or soak in hot water before using. This dried type is more often used in pickling, jam making and preserving. Also available in ground form, preserved stem ginger and crystallized ginger. MACE & NUTMEG: Both are found on the same plant. The nutmeg is the inner kernel of the fruit. When ripe, the fruit splits open to reveal bright red arils which lie around the shell of the nutmeg - and once dried are known as mace blades. The flavor of both spices is very similar - warm, sweet and aromatic, although nutmeg is more delicate than mace. Both spices are also sold ground. Use with vegetables; sprinkled over egg dishes, milk puddings and custards; eggnogs and mulled drinks; or use as a flavoring in desserts. MARJORAM: Marjoram, or sweet marjoram, is a member of the mint family. This herb is cultivated for its leaves, which have a sweet, minty flavor. The leaves are used either whole or ground. Uses: Seasoning for beans and other vegetables, lamb, soups, stews, fish, poultry stuffing, sausages, beverages, and jellies. MSG (monosodium glutamate): With a name like monosodium glutamate, this has got to be some kind of artificial flavoring cooked up in some laboratory, right? Wrong; MSG is a natural vegetable protein derivative which is added to food to enhance the flavor. It appears as a fine white crystalline powder and is actually a sodium salt of glutamate. It is produced through the fermentation of foods such as molasses. Uses: Mainly used as a seasoning for meats, and seafood. Also used frequently in Chinese and other Asian dishes. MINT: Mint leaves have a distinctive flavor that can only be found in mint plants. The leaves can be used fresh or dried, whole or chopped. Uses: Fruits, desserts, jellies, candies, beverages, and as a garnish. MUSTARD: Mustard refers to the mustard seed, which can be purchased either in whole form or as a finely ground yellow powder. Mustard has a strong, hot flavor that comes out when the powder is moistened, but the flavor weakens with time, so for best results, the mustard should not be moistened until it is ready for use. Uses: Ground mustard can be used in salad dressings, sauces, cheese and egg dishes. Seeds are commonly used in pickles, relishes, salads, beets, cabbage, and sauerkraut. NUTMEG: Nutmeg refers to the seed of the nutmeg tree, which is native to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. Either ground or whole seed, nutmeg has a sweet, aromatic flavor. Mace, another spice, is made from the outer coating of the nutmeg seed. Although unlikely, when consumed in excess, both nutmeg and mace are considered toxic because they contain myristicin, a hallucinogen. Uses: Breads, cookies, cakes, custard, pies, desserts, vegetables. OREGANO: The oregano leaf is an essential ingredient for many types of Italian cuisine. It has a flavor and aroma similar to marjoram, only stronger. Uses: Tomato dishes, pizza, spaghetti sauce, Greek, Italian, and Mexican dishes. PAPRIKA: Comes from a variety of pepper (capsicum) and although similar in color to cayenne, this bright red powder has a mild flavor. PARSLEY: Parsley is a member of the carrot family, and its sprigs are used mainly as a garnish for foods. Although often left untouched on most dinner plates, it is said to be an excellent breath freshener, with the power to destroy garlic and onion scent. It is also very popular in French cooking. Parsley can be purchased either fresh or dried. Uses: Goes very well with almost any meat, soup, or salad as a seasoning or garnish. PEPPER: White pepper comes from ripened berries with the outer husks removed. Black pepper comes from unripened berries dried until dark greenish-black in color. Black pepper is more subtle than white. Use white or black peppercorns in marinades and pickling, or freshly ground as a seasoning. Both are available ground. Green peppercorns are also unripe berries with a mild, light flavor. They are canned in brine or pickled, or freeze-dried in jars. They add a pleasant, light peppery flavor to sauces, pates and salad dressings. Drain those packed in liquid and use either whole or mash them lightly before using. Dry green peppercorns should be lightly crushed before using to help release flavor, unless otherwise stated in a recipe. POPPY SEEDS: These tiny, slate-blue seeds add a nutty flavor to both sweet and savory dishes. Sprinkle over desserts and breads. ROSEMARY: Rosemary is an herb native to the Mediterranean with small needle-like leaves. The leaves, which impart a sweet, bold aroma and flavor, are used dried or fresh, whole or ground. Uses: Lamb, beef, veal, poultry, soups and stews, potatoes, breads (rosemary focaccia). SAFFRON: This pice comes from the stigmas of a species of crocus. It has a distinctive flavor and gives a rich yellow coloring to dishes, however, it is also the most expensive spice to buy. Available in small packets or jars(either powdered or in strands - the strands being far superior in flavor). This spice is a must for an authentic paella or Cornish Saffron Cake. Also an extremely good flavoring for soups, fish and chicken dishes SAGE: Sage is an herb, native to the Mediterranean, grown for its leaves. The flavor has been described as camphoraceous and minty or lemony. Sage is purchased either as rubbed or ground. Uses: Veal, pork, sausage, poultry stuffings, meat loaf, stews, and salads. SAVORY: Savory is a member of the mint family. Its leaves are used fresh or dried and sold in leaf form or ground. It has a flavor similar to thyme. Uses: Beef, poultry, egg dishes, lamb, lentils, squash, beans. SESAME SEEDS: High in protein and mineral oil content, sesame seeds have a crisp texture and sweet, nutty flavor which combines well in curries and with chicken,pork and fish dishes. Use also to sprinkle over breads,cookies and pastries before baking. STAR ANISE: This dried, star-shaped seed head has a pungent, aromatic smell, rather similar to fennel. Use very sparingly in stir-fry dishes. Also good with fish and poultry. TARRAGON: Tarragon, an herb native to Asia, has a strong spicy flavor and aroma, similar to anise. The leaves are purchased either fresh or dried, whole or ground, but much of the flavor is lost in the drying process. When using dried leaves, be sure to remove the leaves after cooking, because drying makes the leaves tough, and they will not soften again. Uses: Veal, lamb, beef, poultry, fish, crab, shrimp, eggs, salads and dressings, mushrooms, and asparagus. THYME: Thyme, native to southern Europe, has a strong, yet pleasant flavor, which resembles a blend of cloves and sage. This herb is used both fresh and dried, whole or ground. Uses: Poultry, poultry stuffing, pork, beef, tomatoes, tomato-based soups and sauces, and clams. TURMERIC: Closely related to ginger, it is an aromatic root which is dried and ground to produce a bright, orange-yellow powder. It has a rich, warm, distinctive smell, a delicate, aromatic flavor and helps give dishes an attractive yellow coloring. Use in curries, fish and shellfish dishes, rice pilafs and lentil mixtures. It is also a necessary ingredient in mustard pickles and piccalilli. All spices should be stored in small airtight jars in a cool, dark place, as heat, moisture and sunlight reduce their flavor.

Alcohol Substitutions In Cooking

Almond extract. (Substitute 1/4 - 1/2 tsp. almond extract for 2 tbsp.
Water, white grape juice, apple cider or apple juice, diluted peach or
apricot syrups. (Substitute equal amounts of liquid.)
use ginger ale.
orange juice or frozen orange juice concentrate.
juice from peaches, apricots, or pears.
Crème de menthe
Spearmint extract or oil of spearmint diluted with a little water or
grapefruit juice.
Dry Red Wine
Red grape juice or cranberry juice. Also may substitute chicken, beef or
vegetable broth, clam juice, and fruit juices. (Substitute equal amount
of liquid.)
Grand Marnier or Orange-Flavored Liqueur Unsweetened orange juice
concentrate or orange juice. (Substitute 2 tbsp. unsweetened orange
juice concentrate or 2 tbsp. orange juice and 1/2 tsp. orange extract
for 2 tbsp. Grand Marnier.)
Coffee or chocolate-flavored liqueur. (Substitute 1/2 - 1 tsp. chocolate
extract or substitute 1/2 - 1 tsp. instant coffee in 2 tbsp. water for 2
tbsp. Kahlua.)
Syrup or juices from cherries, raspberries, boysenberries, currants, or
cider. (Substitute equal amounts of liquid.)
Port Wine, Sweet Sherry, or Fruit-Flavored Liqueur Orange juice or apple
juice. (Substitute equal amount of liquid.)
Rum (light or dark)
Water, white grape juice, pineapple juice, apple juice or apple cider,
or syrup flavored with almond extract. (Substitute equal amounts of
Sherry or Bourbon
Orange or pineapple juices, peach syrup, or vanilla extract. (Substitute
equal amount of liquid + 1 - 2 tsp. vanilla extract.)
Sweet White Wine
White grape juice plus 1 tbsp. Karo corn syrup. (Substitute equal amount
of liquid.)
To Substitute in Soups, Stews, and Entrees Dry (unsweetened)
Red Wine
Water, beef broth, bouillon, liquid drained from canned vegetables,
tomato juice or from cooking fresh vegetables.
Dry (unsweetened) White Wine
Water, chicken broth, bouillon, liquid drained from canned vegetables,
tomato juice or from cooking fresh vegetables, ginger ale, white grape


Allspice: Cinnamon; cassia; dash of nutmeg or mace; or dash of cloves
Aniseed: Fennel seed or a few drops anise extract
Cardamom: Ginger
Chili Powder: Dash bottled hot pepper sauce plus a combination of oregano and cumin
Cinnamon: Nutmeg or allspice (use only 1/4 of the amount)
Cloves: Allspice; cinnamon; or nutmeg
Cumin: Chili powder
Ginger: Allspice; cinnamon; mace; or nutmeg
Mace: Allspice; cinnamon; ginger; or nutmeg
Nutmeg: Cinnamon; ginger; or mace
Saffron: Dash turmeric (for color)


Basil: Oregano or thyme
Chervil: Tarragon or parsley
Chive: Green onion; onion; or leek
Cilantro: Parsley
Italian Seasoning Blend: of any of these: basil, oregano, rosemary, and ground red pepper

Marjoram Basil; thyme; or savory
Mint Basil; marjoram; or rosemary
Oregano: Thyme or basil
Parsley: Chervil or cilantro
Poultry Seasoning: Sage plus a blend of any of these: thyme, marjoram, savory, black pepper, and rosemary
Red Pepper: Dash bottled hot pepper sauce or black pepper
Rosemary: Thyme; tarragon; or savory
Sage Poultry seasoning; savory; marjoram; or rosemary
Savory: Thyme, marjoram; or sage
Tarragon: Chervil; dash fennel seed; or dash aniseed
Thyme: Basil, marjoram; oregano; or savory